I agree. Your experience very well could be too limited to have a successful outcome here, but I admire your courage!
Tips: Figure out what doors you are going to buy and get the specifications on those before you start. You are looking for numbers related to "rough opening". Same with windows and man doors.
Are you running power to the garage? Call an electrician. You need a separate panel (I recommend 40 amps) and the cable should be in conduit at least 24" underground.
Do not under any circumstances plan to build your own trusses. You definately do not need that kind of headache. Call some local truss manufacturers and get some design help from them. Many designers will actually walk through your project to make sure you are building your walls strong enough to withstand local earthquake, snow and wind loads.
As far as basic framing is concerned, you should install "j" bolts in your block foundation walls as tie downs for the stud walls. The sill plate should be pressure treated lumber (NOT SUNWOOD!) The walls can be 2x4 hem-fir, spaced 16" oc. All openings need a header above them that is capable of spaning the opening and supporting the load above the opening. The header is supported by 2 or more studs on each side, depending on the opening.
You really should have detailed plans to work from, that will address exactly how many studs you need and where.
Rent a compressor and a Hitachi 83 framing nailer. Be careful with this monster, but it will make your life a lot easier.
Invest in beer and pizza, and invite your friend who works in construction to give you a hand.
Good luck to you, this information is far from complete. Go buy some framing books or go to the library or something. A lot of this can't be taught in text alone.