Regardless, did it dry thoroughly? How many days?
Yes, the correct manner would have been to prime over the new surface material, it needed to be sealed and filled in.
Then you could have painted.
I think that you will still be OK, the first layer of paint will act as a sealer and primer, then you primed again, with oil.
Now, when you repaint with your top coat, you should have a nice finish. Be sure and use a paint from a "paint retailer" not a home center. This will give you a much better coat and finish.
Let us know in the AM how it turns out.
If you are rolling, make sure you know the procedures for rolling. If you don't you will have the roller lines all over the ceiling.
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