The carbon fiber patch sounds like it is intended to reinforce and hide cracks in small areas. If your walls are bowed, you need professional advise for two reasons. First, you need to know if the walls are stable, or if repair is needed, how to approach it. Secondly, you are going to have difficulty later on selling this house if you don't have a professional's opinion stating the issue is solved.
You basement walls are designed to transfer the weight of your house to the footing. Any deviation from a straight line down would seem to be a concern in performing that function. The degree of structural impairment, and appropriate remediation, can only be determined by a skilled professional. Even if moisture problem is resolved, you need to know if your house is stable.
I believe you should obtain professional help on this one. I am not familiar with the products you mentioned, and am not in any way qualified to evaluate the structural integrity of your basement walls from the description provided.