Since plywood is not a 'finished wood floor', it would be nearly impossible, at best, to do anything to the floor other than covering it with something temporary or permanent. The plywood has 'absorbed' the glue and so on. Forget about sanding it off too because it's not worth the effort, in my opinion.
What you might want to do in the meantime is just cover it. Depending on how long you are going to wait until you 'finish' the floor will help determine the quality and type of material you want to use as a temporary covering. I understand you don't want to spend too much $$$ on a temporary thing but I don't know what else to say. You could consider buying some lauan or 1/4" plywood to nail down. But if you're going to do this, I'd consider having a pro install it so it's done right. At the same time, throw down some 'area rugs' so you don't wear the floor out too much because if you do, you may end up having to have it replaced BEFORE you install your finished floor. You could have it nailed down for now in case it HAS to be removed (for some reason or other) before your 'finished floor' is installed. Then, later on, if it is still in good condition to 'accomodate' your NEW floor, it can be screwed down and leveled (with liquid floor leveler) if necessary. Oh, check around BEFORE you have this temporary floor installed to see if you need a moisture barrier layed down first (under your luaun or 1/4" plywood.)
Maybe others have more to offer. My best to ya and hope this helps.
Jay J -Moderator
PS: Even after your temporary floor is installed I wouldn't paint it so it 'looks nice'. Remember, it IS a temporary floor; NOT a permanent one, so treat it as such.