Concrete dust really doesn't smell, so I suspect you're smelling something else, tho exactly what that is I couldn't say unless my nose was in your basement.
The best way to stop concrete dusting is to apply a sealer - either Lapidolith (hardener/sealer from Sonneborn) or JonSeal 220 (coating from JohnsonDiversey). Clean the concrete well then apply.
Mr Floor Care.
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