Hi Sandy This depends on what your cabinets were painted with. Most likely, urethane or alkyd paint was used, which means nothing will stick to it unless the surface is sanded to roughen it and then scrubbed to get all oils and other impurities off. Then apply two light coats (oil based) of your new color, sanding lightly inbetween coats.
Stain is intended to be absorbed into bare wood. You will be very unhappy how it will look if you put it on a painted surface.