Thanks for the response. We're about to try to fix the problem, but I wanted to ask some specific questions.
1) If the short is between either the hot and neutral or the hot and ground, do you mean that those wires are touching each other (i.e. threaded on the same screw or metal connected screws)? I guess I'm asking what to look for. The wires are so old that they are covered in cloth material and not colored rubber. I'm just going by my labels that said right side or left side.
2) The outlet in question is the only outlet in this circuit that we touched, and it worked fine before we disabled it. So I'm thinking that the problem must be with this particular outlet and not a short in any other outlets up or down the line. This leads me to think that we do not need to disconnect any of the outlets downstream. Would this be true?