I suspect that water in the pipe froze and then burst (assuming you live in a part of the country where it gets below freezing in Winter. You haven't said where you live yet. Anyways, ...) Just for the sake of an example, if you can picture a 1" pipe 'connected' to a 2" pipe where the water freezes, then it's like kinda trying to 'push' an ice cube in the 2" pipe THROUGH the 1" pipe. As the water continues to freeze AND expand, the pipe ends up breaking because there's no place for the ice and air to go. It's just a matter of 'pressures' doing the damage. (In this example, the 1" pipe would simulate your spiggot and the 2" pipe would simulate the plumbing leading INTO the spiggot.) You see, a small 'difference' in diameters between two 'pieces of plumbing' can create a 'stop-gap', thus, preventing the release of water and air. I don't think the freezing of the hose had anything to do w/the pipe bursting. Again, I too think the pipe just froze at some point, and finally burst.
I live in the NE. I, as well as many homes, have shutoffs on the INSIDE of the house so the water line going outside can be 'turned off' in Winter to prevent the exact problem you're describing. Not all of these shut-offs have Drain Valves. When they 'seize up' on me over the years, I end up replacing them with Ball-Valves instead of Gate Valves, and they have a Drain Cap too now. After you shut off the water in the house, you open the outside spiggot, then you open the drain cap and drain out the excess water in the line. And sometimes, I use a plastic 'tube' to blow water through the drained line so it won't freeze. You see, by opening the spiggot and drain cap in Winter, then IF there's any water in the line, there is no pressure build-up because the '2 ends' are open.
Well, I could be confusing the heck out of you. You may want to pick up a Home Repair Plumbing Book or visit you library to learn about them. Having shut-offs at strategic points in your water system allow you to 'isolate' the flow w/o disrupting the service to the rest of the house. In your case, for example, if you ever need to replace your spiggot, you'll need to turn off the water for the ENTIRE house to do so. Soooo, as you replace/repair your water lines, consider installing ball-valve shut-offs with drain caps. (They're in the Plumbing Aisle at the Home Center.)