Yes, this is caused by a bad diaphram inside the ballcock (fill valve). After sitting in the water for many years, the rubber gasket (neopreme) often becomes dry and brittle, because the water leaches out the oil that keeps it soft. Once it becomes hard, it can no longer form with the seat inside the valve body. It tries to shut off, but the water forces it open again. The process goes so rapidly its like the lips of a tuba player. It creates a wave vibration that reverberates throughout the piping in harmonic resonance. It can be fixed by either replacing the fill valve (an easy and cheep solution) or replacing the diaphram inside the fill valve. If you are going to replace the fill valve, buy a Fluidmaster 400A its about $9 at you local hardware store and comes with easy instructions for installation. I can replace one in about 5 minutes.