I read your problem and your questions appear to be questions that have been somewat answered,but probably not understood. I have specialized in this field for many years and from my work in this field I am confident in my approach and have to say my understanding and hands on jobs approach has worked 100 % of the time. (1) Old homes were built without proper consideration to water hazards. (2)It is impossable to correct the problem from inside the basement,You must correct the problem from the outside. (3) The only method that works is as follows (a) Excavate the complete perimiter of the basement wide enough to permit easy working room,and BRACE THE BANKS against excavation cave ins ( could cost your life If You Dont). (b) Grade bottom of excavation to fall to a drain connection ,or a sump pit that will allow pumping. (c)Thoraly wash down foundation walls with a presure spray equipment. (d)apply 2 or 3 coats of a waterproof plaster to the walls after you have pluged all vissable holes with water plug. (e)Apply a good quality membrane to the wall, one that will adhere to the wall, and make sure it folds down over the footing to lay on the ground under the weeping pipe. (f)Wrap the basement with a qualified foundation wrap " this will permit the water seepage from the ground to run freely down the wall to the foundation weeping drain. (g) Install your perforated weeping pipe carefully with proper elbows for corners and tite connection from pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows ,Tes ,etc. (h)Place (vary carefully) 3/4 Inch washed crushed limestone gravel up to 16" inches above the weeping pipe and to a distance of 8 " inches from the side of the pipe to the excavation wall. (i)Backfill the excavation with the excavated earth PROVIDED IT IS CLEAN OF RUBBLE If you found that the orriginal backfill was full of rubble it is advised to send it to a dump site and bring in good clean material ,The best backfill would be a granular material.
Last of all YOU MUST GRADE THE SURFACE TO DRAIN AWAY FROM THE FOUNDATION. All surface water must run away from the foundatoin.
Concrete foudations could be repaird without excavating.This is another topic.