I would glue 2" of rigid foam insulation directly to the ceiling and also to any other exterior foundation areas, at least any that are within 4 feet from the top of the foundation (frost depth). You have relatively warm air inside, full of moisture, without proper insulation and VAPOR BARIER, coming into contact with concrete that is below freezing temperature. This equals condensation and frost/ice and a huge mess and potential health risk.
Rigid foam insulation attached directly to the concrete will keep the warm air isolated from the concrete. By not having any air space between you don't need a vapor barrier. If you do a good job with no gaps (fill any with expanding foam insulation in a can) then no warm air will contact cold concrete. You will probably need to heat the space/concrete to above freezing, maybe rent some portable heaters from a local rental center - Keep an eye on them so you don't burn down your house and try to get the type that won't kill your family with CO or CO2. One trick I have used to attach the rigid foam panels while the glue dries is the funny looking things that look sort of like old fashioned letter spindles. They are about a 4-6" stiff piece of wire attached to a piece of perforated sheet metal. You glue the perforated sheetmetal bases to the ceiling every couple feet (enough to poke through EVERY panel in several places), then you apply your glue the panels, push them up so the wires come right through, and then push these sheetmetal keeper washers over the wires to hold them up. I don't know what these things are called, maybe someone else will help out regarding this. good luck!