First, it sounds like you got a door too thick for the existing set hinges. doors come in I believe three thickness's This can be fixed by taking off the hinges and bringing them out by the "over" thickness of the door.
Chris, I install many doors and it is by far easier and more effecient to always install a door and jamb kit all at the same time. This way you can work with the shims and make the door close and seal up properly.
Older homes are even easier to replace the entire jamb and door at the same time.
Replacing the slab only is one headache and these problems always crop up. For me, I can tear out the old door and frame and istall a new frame and door quicker than I can install only a slab.
Or you can back set the stops on the door also to allow for the thicker door.