My experience is that the wind blowing the door open usually results in pulling out a chunk of wood from the door jamb. If that happened, and for filling in the crack and as a glue for this, automotive Bondo or the 2 part Minwax High Performance Wood Filler are the answer. Use a plastic, throw-away putty knife for mixing the filler and do your best to force it into the crack. Replacement of missing wood may require s couple of layers for a deep section. You can overfill and sand flat after and hour or so.
Yes, you can use the same holes for remounting the door return cylinder, but I prefer moving it slightly also. One tip is to use the biggest and longest screws that you can find to prevent further occurances like this but be aware that if you fix this real well, the other end of the cylinder may pull out of the door and be harder to fix. To prevent that, I quit using a return cylinder and just have a chain and spring mounted on the storm door. This lets the door open just past fully open and the spring arrangement absorbs the shock of unexpected openings. Your family will dictate which option is a better one.