Cory, I expect that you could have problems with any water based stain and bleach no matter what you put on the top. A pigmented stain is more likely not to react to bleach. Certainly, the more poly, the more protection you will have.
Personally, I would look at spraying on a couple of coats of black lacquer and then maybe a couple of coats of clear lacquer. Since you are still in the test stage, you might want to look at this. Lacquer is nice because you don't have to wait long for it to dry between coats. At the same time, you cannot see the wood grain thru it.