I have finished 4 basements now, installing firring strips in each, with my present basement requiring about 85 such 1X3's. I've tried every method: adhesive, concrete nails, nail guns (with explosive charges) and am convinced the following is the best way.
Buy an SDS rotohammer...Bosch or DeWalt. This is a great tool to add to your inventory...one you will use many time thru the years. They can be had from Home Depot for about $160 - $200, with the bits costing $8 to $20. I know this sounds pricey, but it is worth it in the long run, as they make concrete hole drilling a snap and you can buy chisel bits for doing light demolition work. I hold the firring strip up against the plastic sheeting and drill through the wood and into the wall, using tape on the bit for proper depth. I then tap a plastic anchor into the concrete then secure the end of the firring strip to the wall using 1 5/8 drywall screw with a small washer, screwed down with my cordless. I installed 4 screws per board which is overkill....3 should be enough. Oh, and be sure to wear hearing protection....those roto hammers are a bit on the noisy side.